INDICATIONS AND LIMITATION OF USE
XGEVA® is indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors.
Limitation of use: XGEVA® is not indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with multiple myeloma.
XGEVA® is indicated for treatment of adults and skeletally mature adolescents with giant cell tumor of bone that is unresectable or where surgical resection is likely to result in severe morbidity.
XGEVA® is indicated for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy refractory to bisphosphonate therapy.
Close Indication
The adverse event profile of XGEVA® has been evaluated in more than 5,600 patients11
Open-label extension phase2,2,1414

  • Primary objective
  • Long-term safety and tolerability33
    • Select objective: patient incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events
  • Treatment transition
  • The open-label extension phase was not designed to evaluate the efficacy of zoledronic acid patients transitioning to XGEVA®.3 3
  • Eligible patients continued on XGEVA® or transitioned from zoledronic acid to XGEVA® at their next scheduled dose during the open-label extension phase.1414
  • Results summary
  • Patients (n = 1,961) continuing on XGEVA® in the open-label extension phase were exposed to XGEVA® for up to approximately 5 years across all phases of the study.1414,15,15
  • No new safety signals were observed in patients who continued or transitioned to XGEVA®.1414,15,15
    • Adverse events in patients who transitioned from zoledronic acid to XGEVA® were similar to those observed in patients who continued on XGEVA®.

OST = other solid tumors; MM = multiple myeloma; Q4W = every 4 weeks.

A safety and efficacy evaluation of the primary treatment phase occurred during a double-blinded extension for the 3 independent trials to determine appropriate evaluable patients for an open-label extension phase.33 Researchers in breast and prostate cancer trials were eligible to continue their patients into a 2-year, open-label extension phase, and the patients in those trials could continue on or transition to XGEVA® 120 mg once every 4 weeks at their next scheduled dose.33

Important Safety Information

Hypocalcemia

Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be corrected prior to initiating therapy with XGEVA®. XGEVA® can cause severe symptomatic hypocalcemia, and fatal cases have been reported. Monitor calcium levels, especially in the first weeks of initiating therapy, and administer calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D as necessary. Monitor levels more frequently when XGEVA® is administered with other drugs that can also lower calcium levels. Advise patients to contact a healthcare professional for symptoms of hypocalcemia.

An increased risk of hypocalcemia has been observed in clinical trials of patients with increasing renal dysfunction, most commonly with severe dysfunction (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/minute and/or on dialysis), and with inadequate/no calcium supplementation. Monitor calcium levels and calcium and vitamin D intake.

Hypersensitivity

XGEVA® is contraindicated in patients with known clinically significant hypersensitivity to XGEVA®, including anaphylaxis that has been reported with use of XGEVA®. Reactions may include hypotension, dyspnea, upper airway edema, lip swelling, rash, pruritus, and urticaria. If an anaphylactic or other clinically significant allergic reaction occurs, initiate appropriate therapy and discontinue XGEVA® therapy permanently.

Drug Products with Same Active Ingredient

Patients receiving XGEVA® should not take Prolia® (denosumab).

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported in patients receiving XGEVA®, manifesting as jaw pain, osteomyelitis, osteitis, bone erosion, tooth or periodontal infection, toothache, gingival ulceration, or gingival erosion. Persistent pain or slow healing of the mouth or jaw after dental surgery may also be manifestations of ONJ. In clinical trials in patients with osseous metastasis, the incidence of ONJ was higher with longer duration of exposure.

Patients with a history of tooth extraction, poor oral hygiene, or use of a dental appliance are at a greater risk to develop ONJ. Other risk factors for the development of ONJ include immunosuppressive therapy, treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors, systemic corticosteroids, diabetes, and gingival infections.

Perform an oral examination and appropriate preventive dentistry prior to the initiation of XGEVA® and periodically during XGEVA® therapy. Advise patients regarding oral hygiene practices. Avoid invasive dental procedures during treatment with XGEVA®. Consider temporarily interrupting XGEVA® therapy if an invasive dental procedure must be performed.

Patients who are suspected of having or who develop ONJ while on XGEVA® should receive care by a dentist or an oral surgeon. In these patients, extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition.

Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fracture

Atypical femoral fracture has been reported with XGEVA®. These fractures can occur anywhere in the femoral shaft from just below the lesser trochanter to above the supracondylar flare and are transverse or short oblique in orientation without evidence of comminution.

Atypical femoral fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone) at the time of fracture. During XGEVA® treatment, patients should be advised to report new or unusual thigh, hip, or groin pain. Any patient who presents with thigh or groin pain should be suspected of having an atypical fracture and should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Patients presenting with an atypical femur fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of XGEVA® therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.

Hypercalcemia Following Treatment Discontinuation in Patients with Growing Skeletons

Clinically significant hypercalcemia has been reported in XGEVA® treated patients with growing skeletons, weeks to months following treatment discontinuation. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia and treat appropriately.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

XGEVA® can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Based on findings in animals, XGEVA® is expected to result in adverse reproductive effects.

Advise females of reproductive potential to use highly effective contraception during therapy, and for at least 5 months after the last dose of XGEVA®. Apprise the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus if XGEVA® is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while patients are exposed to XGEVA®.

Adverse Reactions

The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® with bone metastasis from solid tumors were fatigue/asthenia, hypophosphatemia, and nausea. The most common serious adverse reaction was dyspnea. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation were osteonecrosis and hypocalcemia.

The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® for giant cell tumor of bone were arthralgia, headache, nausea, back pain, fatigue, and pain in extremity. The most common serious adverse reactions were osteonecrosis of the jaw and osteomyelitis. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of XGEVA® were osteonecrosis of the jaw and tooth abscess or tooth infection.

The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® for hypercalcemia of malignancy were nausea, dyspnea, decreased appetite, headache, peripheral edema, vomiting, anemia, constipation, and diarrhea.

Please see accompanying Full Prescribing Information.

 

Important Safety Information

Hypocalcemia
Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be corrected prior to initiating therapy with XGEVA®. XGEVA® can cause severe symptomatic hypocalcemia, and fatal cases have been reported. Monitor calcium levels, especially in the first weeks of initiating therapy, and administer calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D as necessary. Monitor levels more frequently when XGEVA® is administered with other drugs that can also lower calcium levels. Advise patients to contact a healthcare professional for symptoms of hypocalcemia.

References

  • 1. XGEVA® (denosumab) prescribing information, Amgen.
  • 2. Lipton A, Fizazi K, Stopeck AT, et al. Superiority of denosumab to zoledronic acid for prevention of skeletal-related events: a combined analysis of 3 pivotal, randomised, phase 3 trials. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:3082-3092.
  • 3. Data on file, Amgen.
  • 4. MedlinePlus. Calcium blood test. National Institutes of Health website. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003477.htm. Updated September 29, 2013. Accessed October 21, 2015.
  • 5. MedlinePlus. Hypocalcemia-infants. National Institutes of Health website. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007229.htm. Updated December 14, 2013. Accessed October 21, 2015.
  • 6. Stopeck AT, Lipton A, Body J-J, et al. Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:5132-5139.
  • 7. Fizazi K, Carducci M, Smith M, et al. Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study. Lancet. 2011;377:813-822.
  • 8. Henry DH, Costa L, Goldwasser F, et al. Randomized, double-blind study of denosumab versus zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced cancer (excluding breast and prostate cancer) or multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:1125-1132.
  • 9. Bekker PJ, Holloway DL, Rasmussen AS, et al. A single-dose placebo-controlled study of AMG 162, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1059-1066.
  • 10. Keizer RJ, Huitema ADR, Schellens JHM, Beijnen JH. Clinical pharmacokinetics of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010;49:493-507.
  • 11. Lewiecki EM. Denosumab: an investigational drug for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Biologics. 2008;2:645-653.
  • 12. Mould DR, Green B. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of monoclonal antibodies: concepts and lessons for drug development. BioDrugs. 2010;24:23-39.
  • 13. Sutjandra L, Rodriguez RD, Doshi S, et al. Population pharmacokinetic meta-analysis of denosumab in healthy subjects and postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011;50:793-807.
  • 14. Stopeck AT, Fizazi K, Body JJ, et al. Safety of long-term denosumab therapy: results from the open label extension phase of two phase 3 studies in patients with metastatic breast and prostate cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24:447-455.
  • 15. Fizazi K, Brown JE, Carducci M, et al. Denosumab in patients with metastatic prostate cancer previously treated with denosumab or zoledronic acid: 2-year open-label extension phase results from the pivotal phase 3 study. Poster presented at: 37th Annual European Society for Medical Oncology Congress; September 28-October 2, 2012; Vienna, Austria. Abstract 937P.

Scroll Back to the Top

Scroll Back to the Top